Aleppo oak (Quercus infectoria), is a small tree one to four to six feet (two meters) in height, native of Asia Minor, especially in Eastern Turkey.
The galls arise on young branches of the oak tree when gall wasps sting the oak tree and deposit their eggs. When the larvae hatch, they feed on the tree and secrete an irritant. The chemical reaction triggers the production of tannin as a defense mechanism and an abnormality in the oak tree causing hard balls to be formed.
The gallnut trees, like the Tara plants, grow widely in the forest. Local farmers are involved in the harvest and they collect gallnuts that are then stored in warehouses. Finally, wholesalers buy and commercialize the gallnuts globally for many applications, including tanning, pharmaceuticals, food and feed additives, dyes and inks.